Summary of significant accounting policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of significant accounting policies||
Summary of significant accounting policies
Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting standards set by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB. The FASB sets generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, to ensure financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows are consistently reported. References to GAAP issued by the FASB in these footnotes are to the FASB Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC. The Company adopted the presentation requirements for noncontrolling interests required by ASC 810 Consolidation. Under ASC 810, earnings or losses attributed to the noncontrolling interests are reported as part of the consolidated earnings and not a separate component of income or expense.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and entities in which it has a controlling financial interest. Those entities include the Company's wholly-owned subsidiaries, ADGE and Ilios Inc. and a joint venture, American DG New York, LLC, or ADGNY in which ADGE holds a 51.0% interest. As the controlling partner, all major decisions in respect of ADGNY are made by the ADGE in accordance with the joint venture agreement. The interests in the individual underlying energy system projects in ADGNY vary between ADGE and its joint venture partner. The noncontrolling interest and distributions are determined based on economic ownership. The economic ownership is calculated by the amount invested by the Company and the noncontrolling partner in each site. Each quarter, the Company calculates a year-to-date profit/loss for each site that is part of ADGNY and the noncontrolling interest percent of economic ownership in each site is applied to determine the noncontrolling interest share in the profit/loss. The same methodology is used to determine quarterly distributions of available cash to the noncontrolling interest partner. On the Company’s balance sheet, noncontrolling interest represents the joint venture partner’s investment in ADGNY, plus its share of after tax profits less any cash distributions. ADGE owned a controlling 51.0% legal and economic interest in ADGNY as of December 31, 2017.
Investments in partnerships and companies in which the Company does not have a controlling financial interest but where we have significant influence are accounted for under the equity method.
Noncontrolling interests in the net assets and operations of Ilios and ADGNY are reflected in the caption “Noncontrolling interest” in the accompanying consolidated financial statements. All intercompany transactions have been eliminated. In May 2016, the Company completed an exchange of common stock with the shareholders of Ilios and effected a statutory merger. Ilios is no longer a subsidiary.
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform with current year presentation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company’s financial instruments that are exposed to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments and accounts receivable. The Company maintains its cash balances in bank accounts, which at times may exceed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation’s general deposit insurance limits. The amount on deposit at December 31, 2017 and 2016 which exceeded the $250,000 federally insured limit were approximately $1,172,911 and $3,471,765, respectively. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and thus believes that it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash.
There was one customer who represented more than 10% of revenues for the year ended December 31, 2017 and no customers who represented more than 10% of revenues for the year ended December 31, 2016. The Company has approximately four hundred seventy customers who represented 100% of the revenues for the year ended December 31, 2017. There were no customers who represented more than 10% of the accounts receivable balance as of December 31, 2017, and one customer who represented 15% of the accounts receivable balance as of December 31, 2016.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid instruments with an original maturity date of three months or less when purchased to be cash and cash equivalents. The Company has cash balances in certain financial institutions in amounts which occasionally exceed current federal deposit insurance limits. The financial stability of these institutions is continually reviewed by senior management. The Company believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash and cash equivalents.
Accounts receivable are stated at the amount management expects to collect from outstanding balances. An allowance for doubtful accounts is provided for those accounts receivable considered to be uncollectible based upon historical experience and management’s evaluation of outstanding accounts receivable at the end of the year. Bad debts are written off against the allowance when identified. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, the allowance for doubtful accounts was $22,400 and $29,665, respectively.
Raw materials, work in process, and finished goods inventories are stated at the lower of cost, as determined by the average cost method, or market. The Company periodically reviews inventory quantities on hand for excess and/or obsolete inventory based primarily on historical usage, as well as based on estimated forecast of product demand. Any reserves that result from this review are charged to cost of sales.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation is provided using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the asset, which range from three to fifteen years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the lesser of the estimated useful lives of the assets or the term of the related leases. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are expensed currently, while renewals and betterments that materially extend the life of an asset are capitalized.
The Company receives rebates and incentives from various utility companies and governmental agencies which are accounted for as a reduction in the book value of the assets. The rebates are payable from the utility to the Company and are applied against the cost of construction, therefore reducing the book value of the installation. As a reduction of the facility construction costs, these rebates are treated as an investing activity in the statements of cash flows. The rebates received by the Company from the utilities that apply to the cost of construction are one time rebates based on the installed cost, capacity and thermal efficiency of the installed unit and are earned upon the installation and inspection by the utility and are not related to or subject to adjustment based on the future operating performance of the installed units. The rebate agreements with utilities are based on standard terms and conditions, the most significant being customer eligibility and post-installation work verification by a specific date. During 2017 the amount of rebates applied to the cost of construction was $64,395.
Intangible assets subject to amortization include costs incurred by the Company to acquire product certifications, certain patent costs and developed technologies. These costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated economic life of the intangible asset. Indefinite life intangible assets such as trademarks are recorded at cost and not amortized. The Company reviews intangible assets for impairment when the circumstances warrant.
The favorable contract asset which relates to existing ADGE customer contracts is more fully described in Note 6., "Intangible assets and liabilities other than goodwill".
Impairment of Long-lived Assets
Long-lived assets, including intangible assets and property, plant and equipment, are evaluated for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances have indicated that an asset may not be recoverable and are grouped with other assets to the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets and liabilities. If the sum of the projected undiscounted cash flows (excluding interest charges) is less than the carrying value of the assets, the assets will be written down to the estimated fair value and such loss is recognized in income from continuing operations in the period in which the determination is made. Management determined that no impairment of long-lived assets existed as of December 31, 2017.
The Company's goodwill was recorded as a result of the Company's asset acquisition of the permanent magnet generator technology in 2013 and the acquisition of ADGE in 2017. The Company tests its recorded goodwill for impairment as of the last day of the year, or more often if indicators of potential impairment exist, by determining if the carrying value of the Company's reporting units exceed estimated fair value. Factors that could trigger an interim impairment test include, but are not limited to, underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results, significant changes in the manner of use of the acquired assets or the Company's overall business, significant negative industry or economic trends and a sustained period where market capitalization, plus an appropriate control premium is less than stockholders' equity.
The Company's impairment testing involves a step zero process. Step zero allows for management to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the intangible asset is less than its carrying value. As of December 31, 2017, the Company determined that it was more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting units exceeded carrying value and therefore no impairment was recognized.
Income (loss) per Common Share
The Company computes basic loss per share by dividing net income (loss) for the period by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. The Company computes its diluted earnings per common share using the treasury stock method. For purposes of calculating diluted earnings per share, the Company considers its shares issuable in connection with the convertible debentures, stock options and warrants to be dilutive common stock equivalents when the exercise/conversion price is less than the average market price of our common stock for the period. For the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company included 171,594 dilutive shares resulting from exercise of stock options. All shares issuable for December 31, 2016 were anti-dilutive because of the reported net loss.
The Company's operations are comprised of two business segments. Our Products and Services segment designs, manufactures and sells industrial and commercial cogeneration systems as described above. Our Energy Production segment sells energy in the form of electricity, heat, hot water and cooling to our customers under long-term sales agreements. Prior to the acquisition of ADGE (see Note 4."Acquisition of American DG Energy Inc."), the Company's operations were comprised of a single segment (see Note 16. "Segments").
The Company uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. The current or deferred tax consequences of transactions are measured by applying the provisions of enacted tax laws to determine the amount of taxes payable currently or in future years. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities and expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns using enacted tax rates in effect for the years in which the differences are expected to reverse. Under this method, a valuation allowance is used to offset deferred taxes if, based upon the available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets may not be realized. Management evaluates the recoverability of deferred taxes and the adequacy of the valuation allowance annually.
The Company has adopted the provisions of the accounting standards relative to accounting for uncertainties in tax positions. These provisions provide guidance on the recognition, de-recognition and measurement of potential tax benefits associated with tax positions. The Company elected to recognize interest and penalties related to income tax matters as a component of income tax expense in the statements of operations. The Company has analyzed its current tax return compliance positions and has determined that no uncertain tax positions have been taken that would require recognition.
With few exceptions, the Company is no longer subject to possible income tax examinations by federal, state or local taxing authorities for tax years before 2014, with the exception of loss carryforwards in the event they are utilized in future years. The Company's tax returns are open to adjustment from 2001 forward, as a result of the fact that the Company has loss carryforwards from those years, which may be adjusted in the year those losses are utilized.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments are cash and cash equivalents, certificates of deposit, accounts receivable, available-for-sale securities, accounts payable, demand notes, and loans and convertible debentures due to related parties. The recorded values of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable approximate their fair values based on their short-term nature. At December 31, 2017, the recorded value on the consolidated balance sheet of the loan due to related party approximates fair value as the terms approximate those available for similar instruments. See Note 13. "Fair value measurements".
Product and service revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the price is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. Generally, sales of cogeneration and chiller units and parts are recognized when shipped and services are recognized over the term of the service period. Payments received in advance of services being performed are recorded as deferred revenue.
The Company recognizes revenue in certain circumstances before delivery has occurred (commonly referred to as bill and hold transactions). In such circumstances, among other things, risk of ownership has passed to the buyer, the buyer has made a written fixed commitment to purchase the finished goods, the buyer has requested the finished goods be held for future delivery as scheduled and designated by them, and no additional performance obligations exist by the Company. For these transactions, the finished goods are segregated from inventory and normal billing and credit terms granted. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, bill and hold transactions in revenue were $1,141,684 and $2,588,458, respectively.
For those arrangements that include multiple deliverables, the Company first determines whether each service or deliverable meets the separation criteria of FASB ASC 605-25, Revenue Recognition—Multiple-Element Arrangements. In general, a deliverable (or a group of deliverables) meets the separation criteria if the deliverable has stand-alone value to the customer and, if the arrangement includes a general right of return, delivery or performance of the undelivered item(s) is considered probable and substantially in control of the Company. Each deliverable that meets the separation criteria is considered a separate ‘‘unit of accounting”. The Company allocates the total arrangement consideration to each unit of accounting using the relative selling price method. The amount of arrangement consideration that is allocated to a delivered unit of accounting is limited to the amount that is not contingent upon the delivery of another unit of accounting.
When vendor-specific objective evidence or third-party evidence is not available, adopting the relative fair value method of allocation permits the Company to recognize revenue on specific elements as completed based on the estimated selling price. The Company generally uses internal pricing lists that determine sales prices to external customers in determining its best estimate of the selling price of the various deliverables in multiple-element arrangements. Changes in judgments made in estimating the selling price of the various deliverables could significantly affect the timing or amount of revenue recognition. The Company enters into sales arrangements with customers to sell its cogeneration and chiller units and related service contracts and occasionally installation services. Based on the fact that the Company sells each deliverable to other customers on a stand-alone basis, the Company has determined that each deliverable has a stand-alone value. Additionally, there are no rights of return relative to the delivered items; therefore, each deliverable is considered a separate unit of accounting.
After the arrangement consideration has been allocated to each unit of accounting, the Company applies the appropriate revenue recognition method for each unit of accounting based on the nature of the arrangement and the services included in each unit of accounting. Cogeneration and chiller units are recognized when shipped and services are recognized over the term of the applicable agreement, or as provided when on a time and materials basis.
In some cases, our customers may choose to have the Company engineer and install the system for them rather than simply purchase the cogeneration and/or chiller units. In this case, the Company accounts for revenue, or turnkey revenue, and costs using the percentage-of-completion method of accounting. Under the percentage-of-completion method of accounting, revenues are recognized by applying percentages of completion to the total estimated revenues for the respective contracts. Costs are recognized as incurred. The percentages of completion are determined by relating the actual cost of work performed to date to the current estimated total cost at completion of the respective contracts. When the estimate on a contract indicates a loss, the Company’s policy is to record the entire expected loss, as required by generally accepted accounting principles. The excess of contract costs and profit recognized to date on the percentage-of-completion accounting method in excess of billings is recorded as unbilled revenue. Billings in excess of related costs and estimated earnings are recorded as deferred revenue.
Revenue from energy contracts is recognized when electricity, heat, and chilled water is produced by the cogeneration systems on-site. The Company bills each month based on various meter readings installed at each site. The amount of energy produced by on-site energy systems is invoiced, as determined by a contractually defined formula. Under certain energy contracts, the customer directly acquires the fuel to power the systems and receives credit for that expense from the Company. The credit is recorded as a cost of sale. Revenues from operations, including shared savings are recorded when provided and verified. Maintenance service revenue is recognized over the term of the agreement and is billed on a monthly basis in arrears.
As a byproduct of the energy business, in some cases, the customer may choose to own the energy system rather than have it owned by ADGE. In this case, the Company accounts for revenue, or turnkey revenue, and costs using the percentage-of-completion method of accounting. Under the percentage-of-completion method of accounting, revenues are recognized by applying percentages of completion to the total estimated revenues for the respective contracts. Costs are recognized as incurred. The percentages of completion are determined by relating the actual cost of work performed to date to the current estimated total cost at completion of the respective contracts. When the estimate on a contract indicates a loss, the Company records the entire expected loss, regardless of the percentage of completion. The excess of contract costs and profit recognized to date on the percentage-of-completion accounting method in excess of billings is recorded as unbilled revenue. Billings in excess of related costs and estimated earnings is recorded as deferred revenue.
Customers may buy out their long-term obligation under energy contracts and purchase the underlying equipment from the Company. Any resulting gain on these transactions is recognized over the payment period in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
The Company is able to participate in certain energy related programs and receive payments due to the availability of its energy systems. These programs provide incentive payments for either the reduction of electricity usage or the increase in electricity production during periods of peak usage throughout a utility territory.
Presentation of Sales Taxes
The Company reports revenues net of any revenue-based taxes assessed by governmental authorities that are imposed on and concurrent with specific revenue-producing transactions.
Shipping and Handling Costs
The Company classifies freight billed to customers as sales revenue and the related freight costs as cost of sales.
The Company expenses the costs of advertising as incurred. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, advertising expense was approximately $278,000 and $134,000, respectively.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development expenditures are expensed as incurred. The Company’s total research and development expenditures of approximately $937,000 and $677,100 were recognized for each of the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date, based on the estimated fair value of the award, and is recognized as an expense in the statements of operations over the requisite service period.
The determination of the fair value of share-based payment awards is affected by the Company’s stock price. For the awards prior to the Company being publicly traded, the Company considered the sales price of the Common Stock in private placements to unrelated third parties as a measure of the fair value of its Common Stock.
The Company utilizes actual forfeitures when calculating the expense for the period. Stock-based compensation expense recognized is based on awards that are ultimately expected to vest. The Company evaluates the assumptions used to value awards regularly and if factors change and different assumptions are employed, stock-based compensation expense may differ significantly from what has been recorded in the past. If there are any modifications or cancellations of the underlying unvested securities, the Company may be required to accelerate, increase or cancel any remaining unearned stock-based compensation expense.
Pursuant to ASC 505-50, Equity Based Payments to Non-Employees, the fair value of restricted Common Stock and stock options issued to nonemployees is revalued at each reporting period until the ultimate measurement date, as defined by ASC 505-50. The Company records the value of the instruments at the time services are provided and the instruments vest. Accordingly, the ultimate expense is not fixed until such instruments are fully vested.
See Note 12."Stockholders' equity" for a summary of the restricted stock and stock option activity under the Company's stock-based employee compensation plan for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued an accounting standard update related to revenue from contracts with customers, which, along with amendments issued in 2015 and 2016, will supersede nearly all current U.S. GAAP guidance on this topic and eliminate industry-specific guidance. The underlying principle is to recognize revenue when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that is expected to be received for those goods or services. This accounting standard update, as amended, will be effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of 2018. The new revenue standard may be applied retrospectively to each prior period presented or retrospectively with the cumulative effect recognized in retained earnings as of the date of adoption ("modified retrospective basis"). The Company plans to adopt this accounting standard update on a modified retrospective basis in the first quarter of 2018. Management has completed its assessment of the impact of the new revenue recognition standard and concluded that no significant differences are expected to result upon adoption.
In January 2016, the FASB issued an accounting standard update related to investments in equity securities requiring unrealized holding gains and losses to be included in net income. Prior to this update, unrealized holding gains and losses related to available-for-sale securities were included in accumulated other comprehensive income and not included in determining net income. This accounting standard update will be effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of 2018 and is applied by means of a cumulative-effect adjustment to the balance sheet as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. The Company plans to adopt this accounting standard update in the first quarter of 2018 which will result in reclassification of $165,317 of cumulative unrealized holding losses from accumulated other comprehensive loss to accumulated deficit. The future impact of recognizing unrealized holding gains or losses in net income is dependent on the movement in the stock prices related to such investments.
In February 2016, the FASB issued an accounting standard update related to leases requiring lessees to recognize operating and financing lease liabilities on the balance sheet, as well as corresponding right-of-use assets. The new lease standard also makes some changes to lessor accounting and aligns key aspects of the lessor accounting model with the revenue recognition standard. In addition, disclosures will be required to enable users of financial statements to assess the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The accounting standard update will be effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 on a modified retrospective basis, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this accounting standard update on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
No definition available.