|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2019
|Revenue Recognition [Abstract]|
Revenue is recognized when performance obligations under the terms of a contract with our customer are satisfied; generally this occurs with the transfer of control of our products, services and energy production. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring goods or providing services or energy to customers.
Shipping and handling fees billed to customers in a sales transaction are recorded in revenue and shipping and handling costs incurred are recorded in cost of sales. The Company has elected to exclude from revenue any value add sales and other taxes which it collects concurrent with revenue-producing activities. These accounting policy elections are consistent with the manner in which the Company historically recorded shipping and handling fees and taxes. Incremental costs incurred by us in obtaining a contract with a customer are negligible, if any, and are expensed ratably in proportion to the related revenue recognized.
In general, the Company's business segmentation is aligned according to the nature and economic characteristics of its products and customer relationships and provides meaningful disaggregation of each business segment's results of operations.
The following table further disaggregates our revenue by major source by segment for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018.
Product and Services Segment
Products. We transfer control and generally recognize a sale when we ship a product from our manufacturing facility at which point a customer takes ownership of the product. Payment terms on product sales are generally 30 days.
We recognize revenue in certain circumstances before delivery to the customer has occurred (commonly referred to as bill and hold transactions). We recognize revenue related to such transactions once, among other things, the customer has made a written fixed commitment to purchase the product(s) under normal billing and credit terms, the customer has requested the product(s) be held for future delivery as scheduled and designated by them, risk of ownership has been assumed by the customer, and the product(s) are tagged as sold and segregated for storage awaiting further direction from the customer. Due to the infrequent nature and duration of bill and hold arrangements, the value associated with custodial storage services is deemed immaterial in the context of the contract and in total, and accordingly, none of the transaction price is allocated to such service.
Depending on the product and terms of the arrangement, we may defer the recognition of a portion of the transaction price received because we have to satisfy a future obligation (e.g., product start-up service). Amounts allocated to product start-up services are recognized as revenue when the start-up service has been completed. We use an observable selling price to determine standalone selling prices where available and either a combination of an adjusted market assessment approach, an expected cost plus a margin approach, and/or a residual approach to determine the standalone selling prices for separate performance obligations as a basis for allocating contract consideration when an observable selling price is not available. Amounts received but not recognized pending completion of performance are recognized as contract liabilities and are recorded as deferred revenue along with deposits by customers.
Installation Services. We provide both complete turnkey installation services and what we refer to as light installation services. Complete turnkey installation services typically include all necessary engineering and design, labor, subcontract labor and service, and ancillary products and parts necessary to install a cogeneration unit including integration into the customers’ existing electrical and mechanical systems. Light installation services typically include some engineering and design as well as certain ancillary products and parts necessary for the customers’ installation of a cogeneration unit.
Under light installation contracts, revenue related to ancillary products and parts is recognized when we transfer control of such items to the customer, generally when we ship them from our manufacturing facility, with revenue related to engineering and design services being recognized at the point where the customer can benefit from the service, generally as completed. Generally billings under light installation contracts are made when shipped and/or completed, with payment terms generally being 30 days.
Under complete turnkey installation service contracts revenue is recognized over time using the percentage-of-completion method determined on a cost to cost basis. Our performance obligation under such contracts is satisfied progressively over time as enhancements are made to customer owned and controlled properties. We measure progress towards satisfaction of the performance obligation based on an input method based on cost which we believe is the most faithful depiction of the transfer of products and services to the customer under these contracts. When the financial metrics of a contract indicate a loss, our policy is to record the entire expected loss as soon as it is known. Contract costs and profit recognized to date under the percentage-of-completion method in excess of billings are recognized as contract assets and are recorded as unbilled revenue. Billings in excess of contract costs and profit are recognized as contract liabilities and are recorded as deferred revenue. Generally billings under complete turnkey installation contracts are made when contractually determined milestones of progress have been achieved, with payment terms generally being 30 days.
Maintenance Services. Maintenance services are provided under either long-term maintenance contracts or one-time maintenance contracts. Revenue under one-time maintenance contracts is recognized when the maintenance service is completed. Revenue under long-term maintenance contracts is recognized either ratably over the term of the contract where the contract price is fixed or when the periodic maintenance activities are completed where the invoiced cost to the customer is based on run hours or kilowatts produced in a given period. We use an output method to measure progress towards completion of our performance obligation which results in the recognition of revenue on the basis of a direct measurement of the value to the customer of the services transferred to date relative to the remaining services promised under the contract. We use the practical expedient at ASC 606-10-55-18 of recognizing revenue in an amount equal to that amount to which we have the right to invoice the customer under the contract.
Energy Production Segment
Energy Production. Revenue from energy contracts is recognized when electricity, heat, hot and/or chilled water is produced by Company owned on-site cogeneration systems. Each month we bill the customer and recognize revenue for the various forms of energy delivered, based on meter readings which capture the quantity of the various forms of energy delivered in a given month, under a contractually defined formula which takes into account the current month's cost of energy from the local power utility.
As the various forms of energy delivered by us under energy production contracts are simultaneously delivered and consumed by the customer, our performance obligation under these contracts is considered to be satisfied over time. We use an output method to measure progress towards completion of our performance obligation which results in the recognition of revenue on the basis of a direct measurement of the value to the customer of the services transferred to date relative to the remaining services promised under the contract. We use the practical expedient at ASC 606-10-55-18 of recognizing revenue in an amount equal to that amount to which we have the right to invoice the customer under the contract. Payment terms on invoices under these contracts are generally 30 days.
The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections result in billed accounts receivable, unbilled revenue (contract assets) and deferred revenue, consisting of customer deposits and billings in excess of revenue recognized (contract liabilities) on the Consolidated Condensed Balance Sheets.
Revenue recognized during the quarter ended September 30, 2019 that was included in unbilled revenue at the beginning of the period was approximately $3.0 million. Approximately $2.3 million was billed in this period that had been recognized as revenue in previous periods.
Revenue recognized during the quarter ended September 30, 2019 that was included in deferred revenue at the beginning of the period was approximately $2.2 million.
The decrease in the deferred revenue balance during the quarter ended September 30, 2019 is primarily the result of revenue recognized during the period that was included in the deferred revenue balance at the beginning of the period, offset by cash payments of $230 thousand received in advance of satisfying performance obligations.
Remaining Performance Obligations
Remaining performance obligations related to ASC 606 represent the aggregate transaction price allocated to performance obligations with an original contract term greater than one year, excluding certain maintenance contracts and all energy production contracts where a direct measurement of the value to the customer is used as a method of measuring progress towards completion of our performance obligation. Exclusion of these remaining performance obligations is due in part to the inability to quantify values based on unknown future levels of delivery and in some cases rates used to bill customers. Remaining performance obligations therefore consist of unsatisfied or partially satisfied performance obligations related to fixed price maintenance contracts and installation contracts.
As of September 30, 2019, the aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations was approximately $25.1 million. The Company expects to recognize revenue of approximately 94% of the remaining performance obligations over the next 24 months, 41% recognized in the first 12 months and 53% recognized over the subsequent 12 months, and the remainder recognized thereafter.
The entire disclosure of revenue from contract with customer to transfer good or service and to transfer nonfinancial asset. Includes, but is not limited to, disaggregation of revenue, credit loss recognized from contract with customer, judgment and change in judgment related to contract with customer, and asset recognized from cost incurred to obtain or fulfill contract with customer. Excludes insurance and lease contracts.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef