Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Description of business and summary of significant accounting policies

Description of business and summary of significant accounting policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2017
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Description of business and summary of significant accounting policies
Description of business and summary of significant accounting policies
Description of business
Tecogen Inc., or the Company, was organized as a Delaware Corporation on November 15, 2000, and acquired the assets and liabilities of the Tecogen Products division of Thermo Power Corporation. The Company produces commercial and industrial, natural-gas-fueled engine-driven, combined heat and power (CHP) products that reduce energy costs, decrease greenhouse gas emissions and alleviate congestion on the national power grid. The Company’s products supply electric power or mechanical power for cooling, while heat from the engine is recovered and purposefully used at a facility. The majority of the Company’s customers are located in regions with the highest utility rates, typically California, the Midwest and the Northeast. The Company's common stock is listed on the NASDAQ under the ticker symbol TGEN.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the instructions for Form 10-Q and therefore do not include all information and notes necessary for a complete presentation of our financial position, results of operations and cash flows, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles. We filed audited financial statements which included all information and notes necessary for such presentation for the two years ended December 31, 2016 in conjunction with our 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K, or our Annual Report, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, on March 23, 2017. This form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with our Annual Report.
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets, statements of operations and statements of cash flows reflect all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring items) which are, in the opinion of management, necessary for a fair presentation of financial position at March 31, 2017, and of operations and cash flows for the interim periods ended March 31, 2017 and 2016. The results of operations for the interim period ended March 31, 2017 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year.
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary Ilios Inc. or Ilios, whose business focus is on advanced heating systems for commercial and industrial applications. In May 2016, the Company completed an exchange of common stock with the shareholders of Ilios and effected a statutory merger. Ilios is no longer a separate subsidiary.
The Company’s operations are comprised of one business segment. Our business is to manufacture and support highly efficient CHP products based on engines fueled by natural gas.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the price is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. Generally, sales of cogeneration and chiller units and parts are recognized when shipped and services are recognized over the term of the service period. Payments received in advance of services being performed or as a deposit on equipment are recorded as deferred revenue.
The Company recognizes revenue in certain circumstances before delivery has occurred (commonly referred to as bill and hold transactions). In such circumstances, among other things, risk of ownership has passed to the buyer, the buyer has made a written fixed commitment to purchase the finished goods, the buyer has requested the finished goods be held for future delivery as scheduled and designated by them, and no additional performance obligations exist by the Company. For these transactions, the finished goods are segregated from inventory and normal billing and credit terms are granted. For the period ended March 31, 2017, revenues of $1,140,699 were recorded as bill and hold transactions. For the same period in 2016, $140,600 revenues were recorded as bill and hold transactions.
For those arrangements that include multiple deliverables, the Company first determines whether each service or deliverable meets the separation criteria of FASB ASC 605-25, Revenue Recognition—Multiple-Element Arrangements. In general, a deliverable (or a group of deliverables) meets the separation criteria if the deliverable has stand-alone value to the customer and if the arrangement includes a general right of return related to the delivered item and delivery or performance of the undelivered item(s) is considered probable and substantially in control of the Company. Each deliverable that meets the separation criteria is considered a separate ‘‘unit of accounting”. The Company allocates the total arrangement consideration to each unit of accounting using the relative fair value method. The amount of arrangement consideration that is allocated to a delivered unit of accounting is limited to the amount that is not contingent upon the delivery of another unit of accounting.
When vendor-specific objective evidence or third-party evidence is not available, adopting the relative fair value method of allocation permits the Company to recognize revenue on specific elements as completed based on the estimated selling price. The Company generally uses internal pricing lists that determine sales prices to external customers in determining its best estimate of the selling price of the various deliverables in multiple-element arrangements. Changes in judgments made in estimating the selling price of the various deliverables could significantly affect the timing or amount of revenue recognition. The Company enters into sales arrangements with customers to sell its cogeneration and chiller units and related service contracts and occasionally installation services. Based on the fact that the Company sells each deliverable to other customers on a stand-alone basis, the Company has determined that each deliverable has a stand-alone value. Additionally, there are no rights of return relative to the delivered items; therefore, each deliverable is considered a separate unit of accounting.
After the arrangement consideration has been allocated to each unit of accounting, the Company applies the appropriate revenue recognition method for each unit of accounting based on the nature of the arrangement and the services included in each unit of accounting. Cogeneration and chiller units are recognized when shipped and services are recognized over the term of the applicable agreement, or as provided when on a time and materials basis.
In some cases, our customers may choose to have the Company design, engineer and install the system for them rather than simply purchase the cogeneration and/or chiller units. In this case, the Company accounts for revenue, or turnkey revenue, and costs using the percentage-of-completion method of accounting. Under the percentage-of-completion method of accounting, revenues are recognized by applying percentages of completion to the total estimated revenues for the respective contracts. Costs are recognized as incurred. The percentages of completion are determined by relating the actual cost of work performed to date to the current estimated total cost at completion of the respective contracts. When the estimate on a contract indicates a loss, the Company’s policy is to record the entire expected loss, regardless of the percentage of completion. During the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, a loss of approximately $35,000 and $155,200, respectively was recorded. The excess of contract costs and profit recognized to date on the percentage-of-completion accounting method in excess of billings is recorded as unbilled revenue. Billings in excess of related costs and estimated profit is recorded as deferred revenue.
Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable are stated at the amount management expects to collect from outstanding balances. An allowance for doubtful accounts is provided for those accounts receivable considered to be uncollectible based upon historical experience and management’s evaluation of outstanding accounts receivable at the end of the period. Bad debts are written off against the allowance when identified. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the allowance for doubtful accounts was approximately $30,000.
Raw materials, work in process, and finished goods inventories are stated at the lower of cost, as determined by the average cost method, or net realizable value. The Company periodically reviews inventory quantities on hand for excess and/or obsolete inventory based primarily on historical usage, as well as based on estimated forecast of product demand. Any reserves that result from this review are charged to cost of sales. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, inventory reserves were $230,000 and $266,000, respectively.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation is provided using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the asset, which range from three to fifteen years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the lesser of the estimated useful lives of the assets or the term of the related leases. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are expensed currently, while renewals and betterments that materially extend the life of an asset are capitalized. For the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, depreciation expense was $39,453 and $41,166.
Intangible Assets
Intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated economic life of the intangible asset. The Company reviews intangible assets for impairment when the circumstances warrant.
The Company tests its recorded goodwill for impairment in the fourth quarter, or more often if indicators of potential impairment exist, by determining if the carrying value of the Company's single reporting unit exceeds its estimated fair value. During the first three months of 2017, the Company determined that no interim impairment test was necessary.
Stock-Based Compensation
Stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the estimated fair value of the award and is recognized as an expense in the consolidated statements of operations over the requisite service period. The fair value of stock options granted is estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing valuation model. The Company recognizes compensation on a straight-line basis for each separately vesting portion of the option award. The determination of the fair value of share-based payment awards is affected by the Company’s stock price. The Company uses the simplified method for awards of stock-based compensation since it does not have the necessary historical exercise and forfeiture data to determine an expected life for stock options (see Note 5).
Revenues by Product
The following table summarizes net revenue by product line and services for the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016:
Three months ended March 31,


Chiller & Heat Pump


Total Product Revenue


Service contracts




Total Service Revenue


Total Revenue